One of the most important indicators of population health is the primary indicator of children disability. It reflects the state health of the republic, the social protection of the child population, the level of society welfare.
Every year in the Republic of Kazakhstan is born more than 300 thousands children and over 1,200 (intensity indicator — 4 in 1000) have some pathology that determines the health state of these children in later years and the impact on their future mental and physical development. Over 4 thousand children are born each year with various abnormalities.
The structure of childhood disability is dominated by the neuro-psychiatric disorders and congenital anomalies (72%), a leader among which are diseases of the nervous system (34%), 20% of them — children with cerebral palsy (CP).
During the period from 2001 till 2009 years in Kazakhstan 63 000 children (an annual average 7000) received a category with disabilities for the first time. According to WHO, by 2015 is expected to increase PP CNS by 11%, it is 1,6 times increase in the pathology of physical development.
The largest share (46,4%) among all children with disabilities are children aged 7-14 years. The highest infant disability observed in SKO 10.2 per 1000 child population, Almaty — 8,3, Karaganda — 11,3, East Kazakhstan — 10,6, Zhambyl — 10,4. And in January 2009 in South Kazakhstan and Zhambyl regions this figure increased by 0,9 and 1,2 respectively.
The main reasons for the increase in child disability: a low coverage of sanatorium and rehabilitation treatment of children with chronic pathology; weak material-technical base of health facilities, shortage of pediatricians and narrow specialists (neonatologists, child neurologists, rehabilitators, etc.), especially in rural areas; poorly developed network of rehabilitation and rehabilitation in the regions; imperfect system of training and retraining of medical rehabilitation.
Rehabilitative care for children in Kazakhstan has 27 points with different departments. Some of these, 13 (48,1%) — managed health care, and only 6 (22,2%) have the status of the rehabilitation center, 5 — only rehabilitation wards at hospitals or clinics, and 3 center — somatic, heals children with chronic pathology of the internal bodies.
Despite all the efforts made by the State to facilitate life for children with disabilities, there are still problems that remain unresolved social problems that impede the socialization of persons with disabilities, especially when it comes to children with disabilities: public transportation, residential houses, office buildings are not adapted to humans with disabilities; it is not enough traffic lights with the sound, not designed sidewalks and subways, are not adapted public toilets, etc.; social programs for disabled children are only limited by the issuance of social benefits, it is not enough social workers, which would monitor the living conditions of disabled, the lack of integration of disabled children in mainstream schools; also it is not enough factories for the essential accessories production for disabled children (e.g. orthotic production), and equipment for movement is not produced, it is not enough non-governmental organizations, that are responsive to the interests of persons with disabilities in the design of legislation and government decisions.
To achieve the goal of rehabilitation successfully: the most complete health recovery and return to the active life of a child with a disability is necessary to solve medical, social, psychosocial and educational problems not only for children with disabilities, but their parents as well as active involvement of the whole family into rehabilitation process. In connection with this we offer:
- improved diagnostic aid and increasing the availability of rehabilitation for children from rural areas;
- approval of the Health Ministry of Kazakhstan established standards for rehabilitation centers;
- unification of the records in the medical history, medical (ambulance) card and excerpts of rehabilitation with the obligatory indication of the specific parameters that reflect the patient’s condition and the effectiveness of rehabilitation for the comparative assessment of the rehabilitation institutions;
- equipping the centers with modern rehabilitation facilities;
- opening departments (course) for training and retraining specialists rehabilitators;
- creation of regional rehabilitation centers day care for children with disabilities in the health care system.
Проблемы детей инвалидов
Несмотря на все усилия, прилагаемые государством для облегчения жизнедеятельности инвалидов, остается целый ряд проблем социального характера, затрудняющих социализацию инвалидов, тем более что речь идет о детях-инвалидах
Для успешного достижения цели реабилитации: наиболее полного восстановления здоровья и возвращения к активной жизни ребенка-инвалида, необходимо решение медицинских, социальных, социально-психологических и педагогических проблем в отношении детей-инвалидов.
Мүгедек балалар мәселесі
Мемлекет тарапынан мүгедектердің өмір сүруін жеңілдету үшін жасалып жатқан жағдайларға қарамастан, әлеуметтік сипатта мүгедектердің әлеуметтенулерін қиындататын бірнеше мәселелер әлі де ой салатын мәселелердің қатарында.
Оңалту мақсатында табыстарға қол жеткізу үшін: мүгедек балалардың денсаулығын неғұрлым толық қалпына келтіру үшін, оларды белсенді өмірге қайта оралту үшін медициналық, әлеуметтік, әлеуметтік-психологиялық және педагогикалық мәселелерді кешенді шешу қажет.
Republican Children’s Rehabilitation Center, Astana